Evaluation of immunoassays for cannabinoids in urine
Irving, J., Leeb, B., Foltz, R. L., Cook, C., Bursey, J. T., & Willette, R. E. (1984). Evaluation of immunoassays for cannabinoids in urine. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 8(4), 192-196.
A comparison was made of several cannabinoid urine assays. Two hundred randomly selected urine specimens were initially screened by two enzyme immunoassays (EMIT-st and EMIT-d.a.u.) and a radioimmunoassay (Abuscreen RIA). Selected specimens found positive by any of these methods were further analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection (GLC/FID), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and an experimental RIA from Research Triangle Institute (RTI RIA). The GLC/FID method gave confirmations in 69 to 92% of the samples, depending on the method used and the cut-off employed. GC/MS confirmed 98% of the EMIT and RIA positives using a low cut-off (20 ng/mL). All RIA positives at 100 ng/mL were confirmed by GC/MS. There was complete agreement between the RTI RIA and the EMIT assays, but not with the Abuscreen RIA at the 100 ng/mL cut-off. The study illustrates that care must be exercised in establishing assay cut-offs and the designation of false positive results