Receptor model comparisons and wind direction analyses of volatile organic compounds and submicrometer particles in an arid binational, urban air shed
The relationship between continuous measurements of volatile organic compounds sources and particle number was evaluated at a Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station Network (PAMS) site located near the U.S.-Mexico Border in central El Paso, TX. Sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated using the multivariate receptor model UNMIX and the effective variance least squares receptor model known as Chemical Mass Balance (CMB, Version 8.0). As expected from PAMS measurements, overall findings from data screening as well as both receptor models confirmed that mobile sources were the major source of VOCs. Comparison of hourly source contribution estimates (SCEs) from the two receptor models revealed significant differences in motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative gasoline contributions. However, the motor vehicle exhaust contributions were highly correlated with each other. Motor vehicle exhaust was also correlated with the ultrafine and accumulation mode particle count, which suggests that motor vehicle exhaust is a source of these particles at the measurement site. Wind sector analyses were performed using the SCE and pollutant data to assess source location of VOCs, particle count, and criteria pollutants. Results from this study have application to source apportionment studies and mobile source emission control strategies that are ongoing in this air shed
Mukerjee, S., Norris, G. A., Smith, L. A., Noble, C., Neas, L. M., Ozkaynak, A. H., & Gonzales, M. (2004). Receptor model comparisons and wind direction analyses of volatile organic compounds and submicrometer particles in an arid binational, urban air shed. Environmental Science and Technology, 38(8), 2317-2327.