• Article

Early primary literacy instruction in Kenya

We report on a study that used observations, conversations, and formal interviews to explore literacy instruction in 24 lower-primary classrooms in coastal Kenya. Specifically, we report the ways literacy instruction is delivered and how that delivery aligns with practices understood to promote reading acquisition. We find (1) prioritization of developing oral language skills over teaching the relationships between sounds and symbols, (2) enablers to literacy instruction that are the result of teachers’ efforts, and (3) constraints to successful literacy instruction as perceived by the teachers. We identify challenges and opportunities to improve literacy instruction in English and Swahili.


Dubeck, M., Jukes, MCH., & Okello, G. (2012). Early primary literacy instruction in Kenya. Comparative Education Review, 56(1), 48-68. https://doi.org/10.1086/660693

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