Pharmacodynamic Relationships between Duration of Action of JDTic-like Kappa-Opioid Receptor Antagonists and Their Brain and Plasma Pharmacokinetics in Rats
JDTic is a potent and selective kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist that reverses U50,488-induced diuresis in rats. It partitions into brain with a duration of action lasting for weeks. In a search for KOR antagonists that do not accumulate in the brain, we compared single doses of five methylated JDTic analogs (RTI-97, -194, -212, -240, and -241) for reversal of U50,488 diuresis and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. All six compounds showed potent and selective KOR antagonism in a [S-35]GTP gamma S binding assay. Plasma half-lives ranged from 24 to 41 h and brain half-lives from 24 to 76 h. JDTic and RTI-194 showed increasing brain to plasma ratios over time, indicating increasing partitioning into brain and a longer duration of action for reversal of diuresis than did RTI-97. RTI-240 did not show significant brain accumulation. RTI-212 showed no substantive difference between brain and plasma levels and was inactive against diuresis. RTI-241, with a lower brain to plasma ratio than JDTic and RTI-194, formed JDTic as a metabolite, which still reduced diuresis after 9 weeks. The fact that the duration of action was correlated with the brain to blood plasma ratios and area under the concentration-time curves suggests that PK properties could help to predict safety and acceptable duration of action for KOR antagonists.