Pendeo-epitaxy employs lateral growth from etched seed forms to achieve a marked reduction in dislocation density in a material. In this research, high-resolution X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy of GaN stripes and the laterally grown wings confirmed transmission electron microscopy results regarding the reduction in dislocations in the latter regions. Micro-Raman and X-ray diffraction measurements showed the wings to be tilted less than or equal to0.15degrees due to tensile stresses in the stripes induced primarily by the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the GaN stripe and the SiC substrate. A strong, low-temperature DdegreesX peak at approximate to3.466 eV with a FWHM of less than or equal to300 mueV was measured in the wing material by micro-photoluminescence. Films grown at 1020degreesC exhibited similar vertical  and lateral [1(1) over bar 20] growth rates. Increasing the growth temperature increased the latter due to the higher thermal stability of the (11 EO) GaN and initiated growth of spiral hillocks on the (0001) surface of the stripes. The latter were due to adatom diffusion to heterogeneous steps previously nucleated at the intersections of pure screw or mixed dislocations. The () surface was atomically smooth under all growth conditions with a root mean square roughness value of 0.17 nm.
Investigations regarding the maskless pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN films prior to coalescence
Roskowski, AM., Preble, EA., Einfeldt, S., Miraglia, PM., & Davis, RF. (2002). Investigations regarding the maskless pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN films prior to coalescence. IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 38(8), 1006-1016. https://doi.org/10.1109/JQE.2002.801005