HIV risk profile of drug-using women who have sex with women in 19 United States cities
Kral, A., Lorvick, J., Bluthenthal, R. N., & Watters, J. K. (1997). HIV risk profile of drug-using women who have sex with women in 19 United States cities. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 16(3), 211-217.
The objective of this study was to analyze HIV-related risks of women injection drug users (IDU) and crack cocaine users (CCU) who have sex with women (WSW). IDU and CCU women (N = 3856) were recruited from street settings in 19 U.S. cities between 1992 and 1994. For this study, we analyze data on 231 women who reported female sex partners in the 30 days before interview. In the 30 days before interview, 53% of IDUs had shared syringes, and 66% had shared injection supplies. Only 11 women (6%) always used barrier protection while giving oral sex to women and 5 (3%) while receiving oral sex from women in the 30 days before interview. Fifty percent had sex with men as well as women in the previous 30 days. Thirty percent of women who reported sex with men had used condoms for penile-vaginal sex, and 26% for penile-anal sex. In logistic regression analysis modeling sex with men in the previous 30 days, sex work was predictive, 'lesbian' self-identification was protective, and the interaction between these two terms was predictive, while controlling for race and age. Differences in risk perception were significant between women who reported varying sexual risks, but not significant between women who reported varying injection-related risks. There is a high prevalence of risky sex and drug behaviors among drug-using WSWs. There is a need for epidemiological studies specifically geared toward studying risk behaviors among WSWs. Risk reduction activities need to focus on injection-related risks, as well as sex-related risks, among WSWs