• Article

Distribution of the generation of air pollution

Consumer spending creates pollution both directly and indirectly, through derived demand relationships. This paper estimates total generation of five air pollutants by family income class based on a large-scale input-output model of production, consumption, family income, and rediduals relationships. Pollution generation is shown to be disproportionately attributable to the number of families in the higher-income classes. However, it is closely correlated with the level but not the pattern of consumer spending. Comparisons are also made between distribution of pollution generation and estimates of exposure to pollution by income class as reported in the literature.


Bingham, T., Anderson, D., & Cooley, P. (1987). Distribution of the generation of air pollution. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 14(1), 30-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/0095-0696(87)90003-9