Burden of acute gastroenteritis, norovirus and rotavirus in a managed care population
This study assessed and described the episode rate, duration of illness, and health care utilization and costs associated with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), norovirus gastroenteritis (NVGE), and rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in physician office, emergency department (ED), and inpatient care settings in the United States (US). The retrospective analysis was conducted using an administrative insurance claims database (2006–2011). AGE episode rates were assessed using medical (ICD-9-CM) codes for AGE; whereas a previously published “indirect” method was used in assessing estimated episode rates of NVGE and RVGE. We calculated per-patient, per-episode and total costs incurred in three care settings for the three diseases over five seasons. For each season, we extrapolated the total economic burden associated with the diseases to the US population. The overall AGE episode rate in the physician office care setting declined by 15% during the study period; whereas the AGE episode rate remained stable in the inpatient care setting. AGE-related total costs (inflation-adjusted) per 100?000 plan members increased by 28% during the 2010–2011 season, compared with the 2006–2007 season ($832,849 vs. $1?068?116) primarily due to increase in AGE-related inpatient costs. On average, the duration of illness for NVGE and RVGE was 1 day longer than the duration of illness for AGE (mean: 2 days). Nationally, the average AGE-related estimated total cost was $3.88 billion; NVGE and RVGE each accounted for 7% of this total. The episodes of RVGE among pediatric populations have declined; however, NVGE, RVGE and AGE continue to pose a substantial burden among managed care enrollees. In conclusion, the study further reaffirms that RVGE has continued to decline in pediatric population post-launch of the rotavirus vaccination program and provides RVGE- and NVGE-related costs and utilization estimates which can serve as a resource for researchers and policy makers to conduct cost-effectiveness studies for prevention programs.