Incidence of malignancy in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma treated with or without omalizumab
Long, A., Rahmaoui, A., Rothman, K., Guinan, E., Eisner, M., Bradley, MS., Iribarren, C., Chen, H., Carrigan, G., Rosen, K., & Szefler, S. (2014). Incidence of malignancy in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma treated with or without omalizumab. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 134(3), 560-567.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.007
The Epidemiologic Study of Xolair (omalizumab): Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness and Long-term Safety in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Asthma (EXCELS) assessed the long-term safety of omalizumab in a clinical practice setting as part of a phase IV US Food and Drug Administration postmarketing commitment.
We sought to evaluate long-term safety in omalizumab-treated and nonomalizumab-treated patients. Primary outcome measures focused on assessment of malignancies.
EXCELS was a prospective observational cohort study in patients (?12 years of age) with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma. There were 2 cohorts: omalizumab (taking omalizumab at baseline) and nonomalizumab (no history of omalizumab treatment). Primary outcomes included all confirmed, incident, study-emergent primary malignancies (malignancies), including and excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC); all malignancies were externally adjudicated.
The omalizumab cohort had a higher proportion of patients with severe asthma compared with the nonomalizumab cohort (50.0% vs 23.0%). Median follow-up was approximately 5 years for both cohorts. Crude malignancy rates were similar in the omalizumab and nonomalizumab cohorts, with a rate ratio of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62-1.13) for all malignancies and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.71-1.36) for all malignancies excluding NMSC. Kaplan-Meier plots of time to first confirmed study-emergent primary malignancy were similar for the 2 treatment cohorts. Cox proportional hazards modeling, adjusting for confounders and risk factors, resulted in a hazard ratio (omalizumab vs nonomalizumab) of 1.09 (95% CI, 0.87-1.38) for all malignancies and 1.15 (95% CI, 0.83-1.59) for all malignancies excluding NMSC.
Results from EXCELS suggest that omalizumab therapy is not associated with an increased risk of malignancy.