Two-generation reproductive toxicity evaluation of dietary 17beta-estradiol (E2; CAS No. 50-28-2) in CD-1 (Swiss) mice
Tyl, R., Myers, C., Marr, M., Sloan, C., Castillo, N., Veselica, M., ... Hentges, S. G. (2008). Two-generation reproductive toxicity evaluation of dietary 17beta-estradiol (E2; CAS No. 50-28-2) in CD-1 (Swiss) mice. Toxicological Sciences, 102(2), 392-412.
No information exists on reproductive/developmental effects in mice exposed to dietary 17beta-estradiol (E2) over multiple generations. Therefore, under OECD Test Guideline 416 with enhancements, CD-1 mice (F0 generation, 25 mice/sex/group) were exposed to dietary E2 at 0, 0.001, 0.005, 0.05, 0.15, or 0.5 ppm ( approximately 0, 0.2, 1, 10, 30, or 100 mug E2/kg body weight/day) for 8 weeks prebreed, 2 weeks mating, approximately 3 weeks gestation, and 3 weeks lactation. At weaning, selected F1 offspring (F1 parents; 25/sex/group) and extra retained F1 males (one per litter) were exposed to the same dietary concentrations and durations as the F0 generation; study termination occurred at F2 weaning; F1/F2 weanlings (up to three per sex per litter) were necropsied with organs weighed. At 0.5 ppm, effects were increased F1/F2 perinatal loss, prolonged F0/F1 gestational length, reduced numbers of F2 (but not F1) litters/group, reduced F1/F2 litter sizes, accelerated vaginal patency (VP) and delayed preputial separation (PPS), increased uterus + cervix + vagina weights (UCVW) in F0/F1 adults and F1/F2 weanlings, and decreased testes and epididymides weights (TEW) in F1/F2 weanlings. At 0.15 ppm, effects were increased UCVW in F0/F1 adults and F1/F2 weanlings, accelerated VP, delayed PPS, and reduced TEW in F1/F2 weanlings. At 0.05 ppm, UCVW were increased in F1/F2 weanlings, and PPS was delayed only in extra retained F1 males. There were no biologically significant or treatment-related effects on F0/F1 parental body weights, feed consumption, or clinical observations, or on F0/F1 estrous cyclicity, F0/F1 andrology, or F1/F2 anogenital distance at any dose. The no observable effect level was 0.005 ppm E2 ( approximately 1 mug/kg/day). Therefore, the mouse model is sensitive to E2 by oral administration, with effects on reproductive development at doses of 10- 100 mug/kg/day