Small for Gestational Age and Higher Birth Weight Predict Childhood Obesity in Preterm Infants
Gaskins, R. B., LaGasse, L. L., Liu, J., Shankaran, S., Lester, B. M., Bada, H. S., ... Roberts, M. (2010). Small for Gestational Age and Higher Birth Weight Predict Childhood Obesity in Preterm Infants. American Journal of Perinatology, 27(9), 721-730.
We sought to determine the association between small for gestational age (SGA), birth weight, and childhood obesity within preterm polysubstance exposed children. We sampled 312 preterm children with 11-year body mass index (BMI; age- and sex-specific) data from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (51% girls, 21.5% SGA, 46% prenatal cocaine, and 55% tobacco exposed). Multinomial regression analyzed the association between 11-year obesity (OBE) and overweight (OW) and SGA, birth weight, first-year growth velocity, diet, and physical activity variables. Overall, 24% were OBE (BMI for age >= 95th percentile) and 16.7% were OW (BMI >= 85th and <95th percentiles). In adjusted analyses, SGA was associated with OW (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, confidence interval [CI] 1.5 to 7.5). Higher birth weight was associated with OBE (OR 1.8, CI 1.3 to 2.4) and OW (OR 1.4, CI 1.1 to 2.0). Growth velocity was associated with OBE (OR = 2.7, CI 1.8 to 4.0) and OW(OR = 1.6, CI 1.1 to 2.4). Low exercise was associated with OBE (OR = 2.1, CI 1.0 to 4.4) and OW (OR = 2.1, CI 1.0 to 4.5). There was no effect of substance exposure on obesity outcomes. Many (41%) of these high-risk preterm 11-year-olds were obese/overweight. Multiple growth-related processes may be involved in obesity risk for preterm children, including fetal programming as indicated by the SGA effect