Criminal justice system involvement among US women is associated with increased risk for HIV/sexually transmitted infections, yet effects of different forms of criminal justice involvement on intimate relationships are not well understood. This study examined associations between arrest, probation, and jail incarceration on the number of sexual partners, sexual concurrency, and consistent condom use for drug-using women (n = 631) in Oakland, California. We used logistic and negative binomial regression and adjusted for demographics, sex exchange and drug use. Probation was associated with higher rates of sexual partnership and concurrency (IRR 1.87, 95% CI [1.11, 3.15]; OR 3.64, 95% CI [1.08, 12.20]). Incarceration lasting over 12 weeks was associated with higher rates of sexual partnership (IRR 2.23, 95% CI [1.41, 3.51]). Women incarcerated once in the past year had higher odds of concurrency (OR 2.15, 95% CI [1.01, 4.57]). Our results reinforce the need for risk-reduction interventions and criminal justice diversion for women who use drugs.
Sexual risk and criminal justice involvement among women who use drugs