Relaxation phenomena in lithium-ion-insertion cells are modeled. Simulation results are presented for a dual lithium-ion-insertion cell and for a cell using a lithium-foil negative electrode. A period of relaxation after a charge or discharge can cause appreciable changes in the distribution of material in the insertion electrodes. Local concentration cells in the solution phase and an open-circuit potential that depends on state of charge f or the solid phase drive the redistribution of material. Concentration profiles in solid and solution phases during relaxation are analyzed, and the consequences for cell performance are discussed. The model predicts the effects of relaxation time on multiple charge-discharge cycles and on peak power. Galvanostatic and potentiostatic charging are simulated; the results are compared to experimental data for a commercial battery
Relaxation Phenomena in Lithium-Ion-Insertion Cells
Fuller, TF., Doyle, M., & Newman, J. (1994). Relaxation Phenomena in Lithium-Ion-Insertion Cells. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 141(4), 982-990.