Prevalence of Trachoma in Kano State, Nigeria
Results of 44 local government area-level surveys
Mpyet, C., Muhammad, N., Adamu, M. D., Muazu, H., Umar, M. M., Goyol, M., Yahaya, H. B., Onyebuchi, U., Ogoshi, C., Hussaini, T., Isiyaku, S., William, A., Flueckiger, R. M., Chu, B. K., Willis, R., Pavluck, A. L., Olobio, N., Phelan, S., Macleod, C., ... Global Trachoma Mapping Project (2017). Prevalence of Trachoma in Kano State, Nigeria: Results of 44 local government area-level surveys. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 24(3), 195-203. https://doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2016.1265657
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachoma in 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kano State, Nigeria.
METHODS: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each Kano LGA. We used a two-stage systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters in each LGA. All consenting household residents aged 1 year and above were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) and trichiasis.
RESULTS: State-wide crude prevalence of TF in persons aged 1-9 years was 3.4% (95% CI 3.3-3.5%), and of trichiasis in those aged ≥15 years was 2.3% (95% CI 2.1-2.4%). LGA-level age- and sex-adjusted trichiasis prevalence in those aged ≥15 years ranged from 0.1% to 2.9%. All but 4 (9%) of 44 LGAs had trichiasis prevalences in adults above the elimination threshold of 0.2%. State-wide prevalence of trichiasis in adult women was significantly higher than in adult men (2.6% vs 1.8%; OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.7; p = 0.001). Four of 44 LGAs had TF prevalences in 1-9-year-olds between 10 and 15%, while another six LGAs had TF prevalences between 5 and 9.9%. In 37 LGAs, >80% of households had access to water within 30 minutes round-trip, but household latrine access was >80% in only 19 LGAs.
CONCLUSION: Trichiasis is a public health problem in most LGAs in Kano. Surgeons need to be trained and deployed to provide community-based trichiasis surgery, with emphasis on delivery of such services to women. Antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement are needed in 10 LGAs.