Nutrient intakes and characteristics of normal weight, female military personnel consuming foods reduced in fat or energy content
The nutritional implications of consuming reduced fat or reduced energy foods (RED) were examined in 50 women who were participating in a larger study of iron status while enrolled in the U.S. Army Medical Department Officer Basic Course. The subjects recorded their food intake for a 7-day period. Reduced fat or reduced energy foods were identified as foods labeled “reduced-calorie, reduced-fat, diet, or low-calorie”. The women were divided into two groups, those eating >14 RED per week (N=28) and those eating ?14 RED (N=22). The >14 RED group tended to be Caucasian, single, had a lower body mass index (21·2 vs. 22·5), and exercised more. The mean daily intake of the >14 RED group was significantly higher in carbohydrate, dietary fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folacin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, potassium, and sodium, and significantly lower in cholesterol. The percentage of energy from fat was significantly lower in the >14 RED group than the ?14 RED group (p<0·01). There was no significant difference in energy intake between the two groups. More women in the >14 RED group used dietary supplements. The >14 group consumed more dairy products and less sweetened beverages. These results demonstrate that the consumption of reduced fat or energy foods did not have a significant impact on total energy intake in these normal weight women. Individuals consuming these foods may subsequently consume less energy from fat and improve the nutrient composition of their diet by selecting healthier food choices.