As the primary agency for enforcing the controlled substances laws and regulations of the United States, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) strives to develop information sources on the prevalence and distribution of drugs commonly available and used, as well as emerging drugs. The DEA’s Diversion Control Division was established with the mission to prevent, detect, and investigate the diversion of controlled pharmaceuticals and listed chemicals into the illicit market, while ensuring an adequate and uninterrupted supply for legitimate needs. Established in 1997, the National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS), a program of the DEA’s Diversion Control Division, represents an important resource in monitoring illicit drug abuse and trafficking . The primary purpose of NFLIS is to provide accurate and chemically verified data in support of drug scheduling. NFLIS supplements and complements other data sources such as the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and the Poison Control Center database. NFLIS data are used to support drug scheduling decisions and to inform drug policy and drug enforcement initiatives nationally and in local communities around the country. Here we provide a history and overview of the NFLIS program and major activities and resources provided by NFLIS. We also provide the community with updates on the status of NFLIS and its recent enhancements.