Workplace exposure to 1-bromopropane (1-BrP) can potentially occur during its use in spray adhesives, fats, waxes, and resins. 1-BrP may be used to replace ozone depleting solvents, resulting in an increase in its annual production in the US, which currently exceeds 1 million pounds. The potential for human exposure to 1-BrP and the reports of adverse effects associated with potential occupational exposure to high levels of 1-BrP have increased the need for the development of biomarkers of exposure and an improved understanding of 1-BrP metabolism and disposition. In this study, the factors influencing the disposition and biotransformation of 1-BrP were examined in male F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice following inhalation exposure (800 ppm) or intravenous administration (5, 20, and 100 mg/kg). [1,2,3-(13)C]1-BrP and [1-(14)C]1-BrP were administered to enable characterization of urinary metabolites using NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS/MS, and HPLC coupled radiochromatography. Exhaled breath volatile organic chemicals (VOC), exhaled CO(2), urine, feces, and tissues were collected for up to 48 h post-administration for determination of radioactivity distribution. Rats and mice exhaled a majority of the administered dose as either VOC (40-72%) or (14)CO(2) (10-30%). For rats, but not mice, the percentage of the dose exhaled as VOC increased between the mid ( approximately 50%) and high ( approximately 71%) dose groups; while the percentage of the dose exhaled as (14)CO(2) decreased (19 to 10%). The molar ratio of exhaled (14)CO(2) to total released bromide, which decreased as dose increased, demonstrated that the proportion of 1-BrP metabolized via oxidation relative to pathways dependent on glutathione conjugation is inversely proportional to dose in the rat. [(14)C]1-BrP equivalents were recovered in urine (13-17%, rats; 14-23% mice), feces (<2%), or retained in the tissues and carcass (<6%) of rats and mice administered i.v. 5 to 100 mg/kg [(14)C]1-BrP. Metabolites characterized in urine of rats and mice include N-acetyl-S-propylcysteine, N-acetyl-3-(propylsulfinyl)alanine, N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)cysteine, 1-bromo-2-hydroxypropane-O-glucuronide, N-acetyl-S-(2-oxopropyl)cysteine, and N-acetyl-3-[(2-oxopropyl)sulfinyl]alanine. These metabolites may be formed following oxidation of 1-bromopropane to 1-bromo-2-propanol and bromoacetone and following subsequent glutathione conjugation with either of these compounds. Rats pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a potent inhibitor of P450 excreted less in urine ( downward arrow30%), exhaled as (14)CO2 ( downward arrow80%), or retained in liver ( downward arrow90%), with a concomitant increase in radioactivity expired as VOC ( upward arrow52%). Following ABT pretreatment, rat urinary metabolites were reduced in number from 10 to 1, N-acetyl-S-propylcysteine, which accounted for >90% of the total urinary radioactivity in ABT pretreated rats. Together, these data demonstrate a role for cytochrome P450 and glutathione in the dose-dependent metabolism and disposition of 1-BrP in the rat
Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration
Garner, C., Sumner, S., Davis, JG., Burgess, J., Yueh, Y. L., Demeter, J., Zhan, Q., Valentine, J., Jeffcoat, A., Burka, LT., & Mathews, J. (2006). Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 215(1), 23-36.