In this study, we used growth curve analysis based on 566 assessments with the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) to describe the development of 186 children (ages 12–73 months) with vision impairments. Developmental patterns varied markedly among the children, with part of that variability related to co-occurring disabilities and amount of functional vision. Children with co-occurring disabilities—in this case, mental retardation or developmental delay (MR/DD)- had lower developmental age scores overall and slower rates of growth. Visual function of 20/800 or worse was associated with significantly lower developmental ages across time on all domains measured by the BDI (personal -social, adaptive, motor, cognition, and communication) and with slower rates of growth in the personal-social and motor domains. Amount of functional vision and MR/DD did not interact, indicating that these 2 factors had additive, not multiplicative, effects on development during early childhood.
Developmental growth curves of preschool children with vision impairments
Hatton, DD., Bailey, D., Burchinaland, MR., & Ferrell, KA. (1997). Developmental growth curves of preschool children with vision impairments. Child Development, 68(5), 788-806. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1997.tb01962.x