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Conserving Biodiversity and Strengthening Resilience in Uganda

The USAID/Uganda Biodiversity for Resilience (B4R) Activity is strengthening stewardship and incentivizing conservation for a resilient environment and economy


To conserve and manage biodiversity in important ecosystems in Uganda.


We work with communities, the government, and the private sector to support the effective management of key biodiversity areas and promote market-based solutions that will incentivize conservation. 


We create lasting environmental protection, enhance economic sustainability, and increase community and household resilience.


Uganda is home to an incredible array of animal and plant species, making it one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. Much of the country’s economy, such as agriculture, fishing, livestock industries, and tourism depend on maintaining balance between sustainable use and conserving this biodiversity.

Yet, Uganda’s precious wildlife and natural habitats face multiple threats, including from agricultural expansion, climate change, poaching, wildfires, and invasive species. Communities and wildlife in Uganda have never been more vulnerable—so balancing environmental conservation with the practical needs of communities is essential to preserving Uganda’s natural resources for future generations.

USAID/Uganda Biodiversity for Resilience (B4R) Activity

RTI leads the USAID/Uganda Biodiversity for Resilience (B4R) Activity, a five-year project (2020–2027) providing technical assistance to communities, the government, and the private sector to conserve and manage biodiversity in important ecosystems. Leading a consortium of wildlife, conservation, climate change, and forestry experts, we work to create lasting environmental change and economic sustainability, while also increasing the resilience of vulnerable communities and households. We work closely with the Uganda Wildlife Authority and National Forestry Authority, and prioritize the engagement of women, youth, and other marginalized groups in our activities.

Our interventions focus on community wildlife conservancies bordering National Parks and Central Forest Reserves in four key landscapes across the country: Kidepo Valley, Murchison Falls, Lake Mburo, and Budongo Forest. Our wildlife conservation efforts focus on key species including chimpanzees, elephants, giraffe, hippos, and lions and our agriculture and forestry management efforts focus on creating forest ecosystems that provide communities with useable natural resources.

Supporting the Management of Protected Areas

B4R supports the effective management and governance of key community wildlife ranches and forest reserves, recognizing that fully funded and professionally executed conservation management can benefit both biodiversity and communities. We develop and improve biodiversity-friendly integrated land use plans; educate communities, the private sector, and local governments on invasive species and disease outbreaks; partner with communities to combat forest degradation; and strengthen the coordination frameworks of protected areas.

Strengthening Community Resilience to the Impacts of Climate Change

B4R partners with the local government, the National Forestry Authority, and communities vulnerable to the impacts of climate change to develop and implement climate-smart land management practices that boost climate resilience and improve land and watershed management. Using RTI’s Hydrologic Resource Assessment Model, B4R generated maps to show predictions for how climate change will impact water availability and weather patterns in the Karamoja region in northeastern Uganda, which impacts agriculture and livelihoods.

Using a community-led participatory approach, the communities validated these findings and discussed climate-smart agriculture and sustainable land management practices to strengthen community resilience. We continue to engage with communities to explore opportunities—such as a carbon credit project in the region—that benefit the local community and incentivize sustainable forest management and climate-friendly agricultural practices.

Enhancing Private Sector Engagement

Economic and social investments can incentivize conservation. Our initial assessments found that many potential private sector partners are willing to leverage their business practices for positive biodiversity impact but need guidance and support. We promote market-based solutions—including nature-based tourism and other conservation enterprises—to improve stewardship of the country’s natural resources. All proposed solutions are tailored to the unique context of each landscape.

Investing in the Future of Biodiversity

RTI created a Strategic Investment Fund to stimulate investment in nature-based economies in focus sectors. Targeting the private sector, as well as eligible nonprofit and community-based entities, funded projects have a positive and measurable impact on biodiversity conservation in B4R target areas, while also helping develop resilient and diversified local economies.

With an integrated approach to the sustainable management of biodiversity, paired with effective economic incentives for conservation enterprises, Uganda’s unique natural resources can be preserved for the country’s current economic development and for future generations.

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