When groups are more competitive than individuals: the domain of the discontinuity effect
The related goals of the research were to delineate the domain of discontinuity, 1st by demonstrating its occurrence in a nonmatrix situation and, 2nd, by establishing the antecedent outcome conditions necessary for producing a discontinuity effect. The 1st goal was met by designing a mixed motive situation involving the production of origami products. Under these conditions, the magnitude of the discontinuity effect did not significantly differ from that in a matrix-only condition. The 2nd goal was met by a separate experiment that used H. H. Kelley and J. W. Thibaut's (1978) analysis of degree of noncorrespondence of outcomes. This experiment demonstrated that as noncorrespondence increased, so did the rate of competitive responding by groups but not by individuals. This pattern was qualified by an interaction with gender such that competitiveness was more markedly affected by noncorrespondence for groups of women than for groups of men
Schopler, J., Insko, CA., Wieselquist, J., Pemberton, M., Witcher, B., Kozar, R., ... Wildschut, T. (2001). When groups are more competitive than individuals: the domain of the discontinuity effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(4), 632-644.