TSV formation overview
Through-silicon vias (TSVs) are the foundation of today's emerging 3D integration and 2.5D Si interposer technologies. These interconnects extend through the silicon substrate, enabling vertical integration and shortened interconnect lengths for reduced size, weight, and power consumption [1,2]. It is expected that 3D and 2.5D integration will play a major role in the continued advancement of semiconductor technology, as the scaling of 2D Si microelectronics slows down and becomes increasingly more difficult [3,4]. Examples of emerging 3D integrated circuit (3D IC) applications, as demonstrated by companies such as Tezzaron and IBM, are illustrated in Figure 5.1 [5,6]. An assembled 2.5D wide I/O field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture, recently demonstrated by Xilinx (with TSMC and Amokor), is shown in Figure 5.2 .