INTRODUCTION: Cultural tailoring of evidence-based diabetes prevention program (DPP) interventions is needed to effectively address obesity and its related chronic diseases among Latinos in primary care. This article describes the patient-centered process used to adapt the DPP and reports cultural adaptations.
METHODS: We used a 2-stage formative research process to culturally adapt an evidence-based DPP intervention in the context of primary care. The first stage involved 5 focus groups of Latino patients and interviews with 5 stakeholders (3 with primary care physicians and 2 with medical directors) to inform a first round of adaptations. The second stage included pretesting the stage I-adapted intervention with a Latino patient advisory board to complete a second round of adaptations.
RESULTS: Key stakeholders involved in this 2-stage adaptation process included 34 Latino patients who participated in 5 focus groups and 5 physicians and medical directors who participated in key informant interviews during stage I and 11 patients who attended the 16 advisory board meetings and their family members who attended 1 of the meetings during stage II. Using this patient-centered stakeholder-engaged approach, we found the original intervention was largely congruent with the cultural values of the study population. To further strengthen the cultural relevance of the intervention, salient cultural values emphasized by patients and stakeholders underscored the importance of family and community support for behavior change. Accordingly, key adaptations were made to (1) invite family members to the orientation session and at 2 other key timepoints to facilitate family support, (2) provide participants support from the coach and each other via smartphone applications, and (3) provide healthy, easy, low-cost culturally appropriate meals at each group session.
CONCLUSIONS: The 2-stage approach actively engaging patients, family members, providers, and health care system leaders reinforced the cultural congruence of the existing intervention while further strengthening it with adaptations promoting Latino family and community support.