• Article

Language, speech, and educational outcomes of otitis media

Objective: This article, through a summary of the current literature available, studies the relationship between recurrent otitis media (OM) and communication (speech and language) and educational development. Areas discussed include historical and current views of their relationship, hearing loss and auditory abilities, language and speech development, and educational (cognitive and academic) performance of children with histories of OM. As well, the authors present a model for the use of physicians, communications specialists, and educators when dealing with such children. Conclusion: Despite significant advances in our understanding of OM-related communication and educational development, more prospective studies that also consider the role of other mediating and moderating variables affecting language in children with OM histories are needed


Gravel, JS., & Wallace, I. (1998). Language, speech, and educational outcomes of otitis media. Journal of Otolaryngology, 27, 17-25.