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Extrapolation of Rodent Studies on Amniotic Fluid Contaminants to Human Populations

If endocrine active chemicals (EACs) adversely affect human development, then there must be evidence of effects in animal models at properly scaled levels of exposure during pertinent sensitive periods as derived from quantified exposures of the human fetus. Our recent studies attempt to address both effects and exposures. First Study: Dams were gavaged from Gestation Day (GD) 14 through weaning on Post-Natal Day (PND) 21 with either corn oil alone (unexposed controls) or Low DES (0.5 mg/kg BW); High DES (5.0 mg/kg BW); GEN (15 mg/kg BW); GEN + DES (GEN at 15 mg/kg BW and DES at 0.5 mg/kg BW). No treatments affected duration of gestation, litter size or birth anogenital distance / birth body weights ((bAGD/bBW) or ratios of bAGD/cube root of bBW of pups of either sex. The ratio of weaning AGD to weaning body weight (wAGD/wBW) differed significantly between the control group and each of the estrogenic treatments in both sexes with larger wAGD/wBW values associated with each of the estrogenic treatments. Males exposed to High DES and GEN alone exhibited earlier onset of puberty. Only females in the low DES group showed an earlier onset of puberty. At 50 to 70 days of age, the ratios of male reproductive organ weights/body weight were unaffected by estrogen treatment in all groups except high DES which increased testicle weight and decreased epididymis, seminal vesicle, and prostate weights. Initial vaginal cycle lengths were affected only in the high DES group. Thus low doses of DES and GEN at levels comparable to the upper range of human exposure affect some but not all markers of sexual development. Second Study. Amniotic fluid samples obtained at routine amniocentesis between 15 and 23 weeks of gestation were assayed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GG/MS) analysis. The first group of amni- otic fluid samples (n = 53) from 51 women were analysed for several xenobiotic EACs. Alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, with a mean (± SD) concentration of 0.15... [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Hughes, C., Foster, W., Chan, S., Platt, L., Thompson, S., Hubbard, S., ... Tyrey, L. (2001). Extrapolation of Rodent Studies on Amniotic Fluid Contaminants to Human Populations. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: HERA, 7(5), 979 - 1002. https://doi.org/10.1080/20018091094808

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