Evaluation of novel particles as pulmonary delivery systems for insulin in rats
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of calcium phosphate (CAP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) particles on the systemic delivery of insulin administered by the pulmonary route. Two methods of pulmonary delivery were employed: intratracheal instillation and spray instillation. Insulin-CAP-PEG particles in suspension (1.2 U/kg, 110-140 muL) were administered to the lungs of fasted rats by intratracheal instillation (INCAPEG) or spray instillation (SINCAPEG). Control treatments consisted of insulin solution (1.2 U/kg) by intratracheal instillation, spray instillation, and subcutaneous administration (SC). Plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were determined by chemiluminescence and colorimetric methods, respectively. Data were analyzed by compartmental and non-compartmental methods, and pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters of insulin disposition were determined. PK analysis suggested that insulin administered in particles had a longer half-life, a longer mean residence time, and a smaller rate of elimination than insulin in solution. In addition, insulin bioavailability after SINCAPEG was 1.8-fold that of insulin solution administered SC. PD analysis showed that smaller areas under the effect curve and, conversely, larger areas above the effect curve were obtained after INCAPEG in comparison to insulin solution. The magnitude of this effect was increased after SINCAPEG. The presence of CAP-PEG particles appears to positively influence the disposition of insulin administered to the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats. Spray instillation appears to be a more efficient method of delivering insulin to the lungs of rats than intratracheal instillation
Garcia-Contreras, L., Morcol, T., Bell, S. J. D., & Hickey, A. (2003). Evaluation of novel particles as pulmonary delivery systems for insulin in rats. AAPS PharmSciTech, 5(2), Article No. 9.