The association of peripheral arterial disease with hostility in a young, healthy veteran population
The association of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with hostility, a component of Type A behavior, has not been investigated. Previous studies have found an association between coronary arterial disease and hostility. We used Doppler tests to define PAD as consisting of a resting index less than 0.9, absence of posterior tibial waveform, or presence of a femoral bruit. Among 4,462 male veterans, the prevalence and odds ratio of PAD increased statistically significantly with an increase in the Cook-Medley hostility scale. The prevalence of PAD was 0.7%, 1.1%, 1.4%, and 1.6% in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of the hostility scale, respectively. Using the first quartile as a reference group, we found that odds ratios of PAD were 1.6, 1.9, and 2.2 for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. Odds ratios, adjusted for age, race, cigarette smoking, hypertension, familial ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and elevated LDL/HDL were 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8, respectively. The magnitude of the odds ratios and their statistically significant trend suggest an association between PAD and hostility
Joesoef, MR., Wetterhall, S., DeStefano, F., Stroup, NE., & Fronek, A. (1989). The association of peripheral arterial disease with hostility in a young, healthy veteran population. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51(3), 285-289.