Models of Cancer Survivorship Care: Overview and Summary of Current Evidence
Halpern, M., Viswanathan, M., Evans, T. S., Birken, S. A., Basch, E., & Mayer, D. K. (2015). Models of Cancer Survivorship Care: Overview and Summary of Current Evidence. Journal of Oncology Practice, 11(1), e19-e27.
INTRODUCTION: This article, derived from a Technical Brief prepared for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, presents an overview on current models of care for survivors of adult-onset cancer who have completed active treatment. METHODS: This article integrates reviewed literature on background, context, research gaps, and future research directions for survivorship care models. We also conducted a systematic literature review of current evidence from studies of survivorship care models. RESULTS: Our systematic review identified nine empirical studies of survivorship care models, covering multiple models types and illustrating the heterogeneity in this field. The literature review indicated considerable heterogeneity in models of survivorship care, components of models, survivor populations, and target outcomes. Models of survivorship care are highly individualized to the institution or setting where they are provided. 'Usual care' is often uncoordinated and highly varied across cancer survivors and within cancer programs. Anticipated shortages in the oncology workforce may require the expanded use of nurse practitioners and physician assistants and shared care with primary care providers to deliver survivorship care to the growing number of survivors. Concerns associated with survivorship care models include payment considerations, adequacy of training, and the potential for lack of coordination and fragmented care. CONCLUSION: There is substantial variation in survivorship care models. The optimal nature, timing, intensity, format, and outcomes of survivorship care models are uncertain and require further research. Specific research questions need to be addressed by the survivorship community to better understand the advantages and limitations of survivorship models