• Journal Article

The Effect of Hospice on Hospitalizations of Nursing Home Residents

Citation

Zheng, N., Mukamel, D. B., Friedman, B., Caprio, T. V., & Temkin-Greener, H. (2015). The Effect of Hospice on Hospitalizations of Nursing Home Residents. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(2), 155-159. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2014.08.010

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Hospice enrollment is known to reduce risk of hospitalizations for nursing home residents who use it. We examined whether residing in facilities with a higher hospice penetration: (1) reduces hospitalization risk for nonhospice residents; and (2) decreases hospice-enrolled residents' hospitalization risk relative to hospice-enrolled residents in facilities with a lower hospice penetration. METHODS: Medicare Beneficiary File, Inpatient and Hospice Claims, Minimum Data Set Version 2.0, Provider of Services File, and Area Resource File. Retrospective analysis of long-stay nursing home residents who died during 2005-2007. Overall, 505,851 nonhospice (67.66%) and 241,790 hospice-enrolled (32.34%) residents in 14,030 facilities nationwide were included. We fit models predicting the probability of hospitalization conditional on hospice penetration and resident and facility characteristics. We used instrumental variable method to address the potential endogeneity between hospice penetration and hospitalization. Distance between each nursing home and the closest hospice was the instrumental variable. RESULTS: In the last 30 days of life, 37.63% of nonhospice and 23.18% of hospice residents were hospitalized. Every 10% increase in hospice penetration leads to a reduction in hospitalization risk of 5.1% for nonhospice residents and 4.8% for hospice-enrolled residents. CONCLUSIONS: Higher facility-level hospice penetration reduces hospitalization risk for both nonhospice and hospice-enrolled residents. The findings shed light on nursing home end-of-life care delivery, collaboration among providers, and cost benefit analysis of hospice care