Ensuring a stable and healthful food supply for the world’s growing population has become increasingly urgent, particularly in the face of climate change. In spite of expected increases in food production in developing countries, the number of people at risk of hunger is predicted to grow, especially in the world’s poorest regions. While technology is not a panacea, it is critical to addressing the food production side of the food security equation. The social, economic, and other factors that affect technology adoption are complex and varied, requiring research that combines natural and social sciences to understand how best to influence the uptake and sustained use of effective technologies. Research should focus on four areas where complex combinations of challenges inhibit adoption. Understanding (1) farm-level, (2) economic, and (3) policy barriers would illuminate where promising innovations may be viable. Further, researchers should explore which approaches most effectively drive adoption of (4) combinations of agricultural practices and technologies.