School and classroom disabilities inclusion guide for low- and middle-income countries

By Jennae Bulat, Anne M Hayes, Wykia Macon, Renata Ticha, Brian H Abery

Having a disability can be one of the most marginalizing factors in a child’s life. In education, finding ways to meet the learning needs of children with disabilities can be challenging, especially in schools, districts, regions, and countries with severely limited resources. Inclusive education—which fully engages all children in quality education, including children with various types of disabilities or other learning challenges—has proven particularly effective in helping all children learn, including those with disabilities. This guide provides strategies and recommendations for developing inclusive classrooms and schools. We specifically address the needs of Sub-Saharan African countries, which lack the resources for implementing inclusive education. However, our strategies and recommendations can be equally useful in other contexts where inclusive education practices have not yet been adopted.


Bulat, J., Hayes, A. M., Macon, W., Ticha, R., & Abery, B. H. (2017). School and classroom disabilities inclusion guide for low- and middle-income countries. (RTI Press Publication No. OP-0031-1701). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press.

© 2019 RTI International. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Jennae BulatJennae Bulat, PhD, directs the Teaching and Learning team in the International Development Group at RTI International.

Anne M HayesAnne M. Hayes, MA, is an international disability and development consultant.

Wykia MaconWykia Macon, MS, is an independent consultant in international and comparative education, focusing on education for students with disabilities in low-income countries.

Renata TichaRenáta Tichá, PhD, is a research associate and Director of the Global Resource Center for Inclusive Education at the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota.

Brian H AberyBrian H. Abery, PhD, is Coordinator of School-Age Services at the Institute on Community Integration and an adjunct faculty member within the Institute on Child Development and School Psychology Programs at the University of Minnesota.

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