Viewing America's energy future in three dimensions

By Robert Beach, Phillip Cooley, A Duffer, Michael Gallaher, LL Hegedus, Markus Lesemann, Toby Moore, E Pellizzari, Dorota Temple

The future of the US energy infrastructure is a major and urgent challenge for our society. This monograph was stimulated by a report of the National Academies' Committee on America's Energy Future, America's Energy Future: Technology and Transformation, Summary Edition, 2009. The report pointed out the critical but poorly understood and little explored role of societal considerations in determining the fate of national energy policies and programs. In our efforts to respond to those concerns, we have examined the thesis that the three major dimensions of the energy challenge—technology, economics, and societal—are overlapping, interactive, and inseparable; therefore, they can be understood only when considered simultaneously and discussed in terms of their interactions. Correspondingly, this monograph describes energy technologies in the context of their economic and societal contexts, energy economics in their technological and societal contexts, and the societal aspects of energy in their technological and economic contexts. The monograph then identifies social science–driven research opportunities pertaining to America’s energy challenge, with the hope that the proposed research will help not only overcome the societal barriers identified by the National Academies' report, but also harness societal forces in developing a rational energy future.


Beach, R., Cooley, P., Duffer, A., Gallaher, M., Hegedus, LL., Lesemann, M., ... Temple, D. (2011). Viewing America's energy future in three dimensions. (RTI Press Publication No. BK-0006-1106). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press.

© 2019 RTI International. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Robert BeachRobert H. Beach, PhD, directs the Agriculture, Resource & Energy Economics and Policy (AREEP) Program at RTI International. His research includes developing and applying economic models to analyze agricultural, environmental, and natural resource regulations, programs, and policies.

Phillip CooleyPhilip C. Cooley, MS, Senior Fellow in bioinformatics and high-performance computing, is a principal scientist with more than 50 years of experience developing computer models for the study of environmental health and infectious and chronic disease. Cooley has designed and implemented a series of influenza transmission models for the study and management of pandemic flu. He has also designed a model to study the double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia. His current research includes an assessment of statistical methods for biomarker explorations in the context of genome-wide-analysis studies.

A DufferAllen Duffer, BA, director of business and proposal development for RTI’s Survey Research Division, has been with RTI since 1974. In this position he coordinates the business development plans and activities of the division for multiple agencies, institutes, and centers of the federal government as well as for commercial clients. His survey research experience includes the management of complex, large-scale cross-sectional, longitudinal, and site-based data collection projects. These projects have involved the collection of data on sensitive health, quality of life, and behavioral topics. Mr. Duffer has a BA in English and political science from North Carolina State University.

Michael GallaherMichael P. Gallaher, PhD, is the senior director of RTI’s Center for Environmental, Technology, and Energy Economics. His research includes R&D and environmental policy analysis, with a focus on evaluating new technologies and their associated economic and environmental impacts.

LL HegedusL. Louis Hegedus, PhD, is an advisor and a Visiting Distinguished Fellow at RTI International. He retired in 2006 as the Senior Vice President, Research and Development, of Arkema Inc., a global chemicals manufacturer. His nearly 40 years of industrial experience span chemicals (Arkema, W.R. Grace), oils (Elf Aquitaine, Total), and automobiles (Mercedes-Benz, General Motors). Dr. Hegedus earned his PhD in chemical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, and is a member of the US National Academy of Engineering. He has 75 publications and patents, mainly in the areas of catalysis and chemical reaction engineering.

Markus LesemannMarkus Lesemann, PhD, is the director for business development in the Center for Energy Technology at RTI International, where he is responsible for technology commercialization and licensing, commercial contracts, and intellectual property management. Previously Dr. Lesemann worked with catalyst manufacturer W.R. Grace, where he held positions in marketing management, with a focus on fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), and strategic R&D, developing sorbents and membranes for oil refining applications. Dr. Lesemann received a PhD in physical chemistry from the University of Cologne, Germany, and an MBA from Georgetown University. He has published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals, as well as industry publications, and is an inventor on several patents.

Toby MooreToby H. Moore, PhD, was a senior researcher in RTI’s Survey Research Division at the time of the writing of this monograph. Prior to joining RTI in 2007, he was the redistricting expert of the Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division for the reapportionment that followed the 2000 Census, supporting voting rights enforcement through map drawing and demographic and electoral analysis. During his employment at RTI, he directed a major regional development study in South Carolina. Dr. Moore received a PhD in geography from the University of Iowa, Iowa City, an MA in geography from the University of North Carolina-Charlotte, and a BA in English and the Curriculum of Peace, War and Defense from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.

E PellizzariEdo D. Pellizzari, PhD, is an RTI Fellow Emeritus. Dr. Pellizzari had nearly 40 years of scientific and executive leadership and accomplishments at RTI. He is nationally and internationally known for major contributions in the environmental health sciences, specifically in chemical and aerosol exposure analysis, and for developing and applying personal exposure methodology to population-based studies on toxic chemicals. Dr. Pellizzari has served on several National Research Council committees, as chair of the Environmental Health Sciences Committee for the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences from 2006 to 2008, and as a member of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Science Advisory Board (Drinking Water Committee) from 1987 to 1997. He received his PhD in biochemistry from Purdue University.

Dorota TempleDorota S. Temple, PhD, is an RTI Senior Fellow in electronics and energy technologies and the director of RTI’s Microsystem Integration and Flexible Electronics programs. She has more than 20 years of experience in the development of electronic materials and processes for applications in integrated circuits, sensors, displays, and solar cells. She is internationally known for her research on field emission electron sources and for her contributions to the development of three-dimensional integration technologies for “smart” focal plane imaging arrays. Dr. Temple has authored or coauthored more than 130 scientific and technical publications and holds six US patents. She received her PhD in solid-state physics from the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland.

Contact RTI Press

To contact an author, request an exam or review copy, or seek permission to use copyrighted content, contact our editorial team.