Based on a review of the literature on demographic transition theory and documentation of preconditions to transition in Africa, the hypothesis is set forth that, excluding the transitional society, there are two kinds of situations: one in which it is economically advantageous to maximize the number of children; and one in which it is economically advantageous to minimizethe number. Arguing that child-bearing patterns in both kinds of societies are based on rational decisions, Caldwell concludes that, in the course of the coming century, fertility will almost certainly fall to low levels in most societies--even where economic growth has been slow and per capita incomes remain low--because of the massive social change leading to the nucleated family structure found in the West
Toward A Restatement of Demographic Transition Theory
Caldwell, JC. (1976). Toward A Restatement of Demographic Transition Theory. Population and Development Review, 2(3/4), 321-366.