As electric vehicles and their associated charging infrastructure continue to evolve, there is potential to simultaneous alleviate range and recharge concerns with the development of extreme fast chargers (XFC) that can fully charge batteries in PEVs in the span of a few minutes. Recent announcements from EVSE providers and vehicle manufacturers suggest that XFC charging stations, which can recharge a BEV at roughly 20 to 25 miles per minute of charging, and XFC-capable BEVs, could be commercially available within the next 5 years. Our study investigates the potential emission impacts of widespread use of extreme fast charging (350 kW) for electric vehicles in 2030. We conduct a novel vehicle charging simulation model by combining empirical charging behavior data across several data sources. These charging demands are then added as exogenous load to the Grid Optimized Operation Dispatch (GOOD) model, which simulates the operation of generators across the Untied States. We find that XFC can increase both greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollutants, though the results are sensitive to local contexts and grid composition.
Environmental impacts of extreme fast charging