Overall mortality of cellular telephone customers
Unlike mobile cellular telephones, in which the antenna is not part of the handset, a portable cellular telephone exposes the user's head to radio frequency energy transmitted from the antenna. This exposure has prompted concerns about potential biological effects, including brain cancer. As a first step in a record-based mortality surveillance of cellular telephone customers, we report on overall mortality of a cohort of more than 250,000 portable and mobile telephone customers during 1994. We found age specific rates to be similar for users of the two types of telephones. For customers with accounts at least 3 years old, the ratio of mortality rates in 1994 for portable telephone users, compared with mobile telephone users, was 0.86 (90% confidence interval = 0.47-1.53)
Rothman, K., Loughlin, JE., Funch, DP., & Dreyer, NA. (1996). Overall mortality of cellular telephone customers. Epidemiology, 7(3), 303-305.