BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) negatively modulates dopamine transmission. Our previous studies demonstrated that TAAR1 agonists attenuated cue- and drug-induced cocaine-seeking and increased the elasticity of the cocaine demand curve, in the short-access cocaine self-administration model. Compulsive use of cocaine, which is an essential criterion of cocaine use disorder, can be induced by extended access to cocaine self-administration.
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: To characterize the role of TAAR1 in compulsive cocaine use, we evaluated the effects of activation of TAAR1 on cocaine intake, cocaine binge and cue-induced cocaine-seeking using the extended-access cocaine self-administration model in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. We also investigated the role of TAAR1 in stress-triggered cocaine relapse by using the α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking.
KEY RESULTS: The selective TAAR1 partial agonist RO5263397 attenuated cocaine intake and did not develop tolerance during the 10-day extended-access cocaine self-administration. RO5263397 reduced a 12-h binge intake of cocaine after forced abstinence. RO5263397 also decreased cue-induced cocaine-seeking after prolonged abstinence from extended-access cocaine self-administration. Furthermore, RO5263397 and the selective TAAR1 full agonist RO5166017 reduced yohimbine-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour.
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Activation of TAAR1 attenuated extended-access cocaine self-administration and stress-induced cocaine reinstatement. These results suggest that TAAR1 agonists are promising pharmacological interventions to treat cocaine use disorder and relapse.