The cost of on-site versus off-site workplace urinalysis testing for illicit drug use
Ozminkowski, R. J., Mark, T., Cangianelli, L., Walsh, J. M., Davidson, R., Blank, D., ... Goetzel, R. Z. (2001). The cost of on-site versus off-site workplace urinalysis testing for illicit drug use. Health Care Manager, 20(1), 59-69. [PMID: 11556554].
Workplace drug testing has become standard business practice in America. With increasing costs, however, many corporations look for more cost-effective testing alternatives. The study compared the cost of two testing strategies: urinalysis at the work site versus testing that occurs elsewhere. Employees from seven company locations were tested for illicit drugs. Four sites conducted the initial screening test at the workplace and three sites performed testing off site. On-site testing was found to have significantly lower variable costs, and total costs were lower once a threshold of 27 employees tested was attained. On-site testing also provided immediate access to negative test results, thereby facilitating personnel decisions.