The pharmacological effects of tobacco products are primarily mediated by nicotine; however, research suggests that several non-nicotine tobacco constituents may alter the reinforcing effects of nicotine. This study evaluated the reinforcing effects of aqueous solutions of smoke/aerosol condensate from cigarettes, little cigars, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and waterpipe tobacco in a self-administration procedure to determine if abuse liability of these tobacco products differed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64 total) were trained to self-administer intravenous nicotine (30 μg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. Following nicotine dose-effect assessment (1, 7.5, 15, and 30 μg/kg/infusion), rats were given access to smoke/aerosol condensate derived from their assigned tobacco product. Rats responded for smoke/aerosol condensate containing 1, 7.5, 15, and 30 μg/kg/infusion nicotine, with the ratio of nicotine:non-nicotine constituents held constant across doses for each tobacco product. Responding for nicotine or smoke/aerosol condensate was also assessed on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Cigarette, little cigar, and e-cigarette smoke/aerosol condensates shifted the nicotine dose-effect curve leftward, whereas waterpipe tobacco smoke condensate shifted the dose-effect curve rightward. Smoke/aerosol condensate from all tobacco products produced similar levels of responding compared to nicotine alone during the progressive ratio phase. Results suggest that non-nicotine constituents in cigarettes, little cigars, and e-cigarettes differentially enhance nicotine's reinforcing potency. In contrast, waterpipe tobacco blunted nicotine's reinforcing potency, suggesting that it may contain unique constituents that dampen nicotine's reinforcing effects.
Comparison of cigarette, little cigar, and waterpipe tobacco smoke condensate and e-cigarette aerosol condensate in a self-administration model
Marusich, J. A., Wiley, J. L., Silinski, M. A. R., Thomas, B. F., Meredith, S. E., Gahl, R. F., & Jackson, K. J. (2019). Comparison of cigarette, little cigar, and waterpipe tobacco smoke condensate and e-cigarette aerosol condensate in a self-administration model. Behavioural Brain Research, 372, 112061. . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.112061