• Article

Assessing family outcomes in early intervention The case of Singapore

Background This study sought to develop an understanding of the applicability of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised (FOS-R) within the context of Singapore and to describe the extent to which family outcomes of young children attending in early intervention programs in Singapore were achieved. Method The FOS-R was translated into Chinese (simplified) and Malay for use in Singapore. Bilingual (i.e., English–Chinese and English–Malay) versions of the FOS-R were distributed to 699 families with young children attending early intervention in four centers in Singapore. A total of 301 families returned the surveys resulting in a 43.1% participation rate. Of the returned questionnaires, 10 (3.3%) were excluded from the analysis due to item nonresponse of more than half of the FOS-R. Results Confirmatory factor analyses of the items indicate a fit between items and the model. Overall, respondents indicated that they had achieved a moderately high percentage of family outcomes. They also reported a high level of helpfulness of early intervention programs. Conclusions This study suggests that instruments such as the FOS-R developed in the US can be applied for other contexts, albeit with some adaptation. The items that are omitted will be discussed and the findings will be interpreted within Berry’s (1989) proposal for the cross-cultural application of instruments.


Poon, K., Ooi, N., & Bailey, D. (2013). Assessing family outcomes in early intervention: The case of Singapore. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 10(2), 162-162.