Water movement during freezing in a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell
A two-dimensional, transient model of the full-cell sandwich has been developed in order to predict water redistribution during the freezing process. Critical factors affecting the magnitude and direction of water movement are found to be the location of the cell within the stack, the permeability of the porous media of the cell, and the high thermal conductivity of the rib relative to the gas channel.
Balliet, RJ., Thomas-Alyea, KE., & Newman, J. (2008). Water movement during freezing in a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell. ECS Transactions, 16(2), 285-296. https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2981863