Use of buprenorphine in pregnancy: patient management and effects on the neonate
Johnson, R. E., Jones, H., & Fischer, G. (2003). Use of buprenorphine in pregnancy: patient management and effects on the neonate. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 70(Suppl. 1), S87-S101.
It is estimated that 55-94% of infants born to opioid-dependent mothers in US will show signs of opioid withdrawal. Buprenorphine has been reported to produce little or no autonomic signs or symptoms of opioid withdrawal following abrupt termination in adults. To date, there have been 21 published reports representing approximately 15 evaluable cohorts of infants exposed to buprenorphine in utero. Of approximately 309 infants exposed, a neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has been reported in 62% infants with 48% requiring treatment; apparently greater than 40% of these cases are confounded by illicit drug use. The NAS associated with buprenorphine generally appears within 12-48 h, peaks at approximately 72-96 h, and lasts for 120-168 h. These results appear similar to or less than that observed following in utero exposure to methadone. From a review of the literature, buprenorphine appears to be safe and effective in both mother and infant with an NAS that may differ from methadone both qualitatively and quantitatively. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved