BACKGROUND: Aclidinium bromide is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA). Although the initial potential increased cardiovascular and mortality risk among users of tiotropium has been ruled out by several observational studies, and clinical trials, there are still concerns related to the use of newer LAMA medications. The current study aimed to evaluate the risk of death among users of aclidinium and other LAMAs.
METHODS: We conducted a cohort and nested case-control study among patients with COPD aged 40 years or older to compare the risk of all-cause mortality among users of aclidinium and other COPD medications with the risk among users of long-acting β2 agonists (LABA), in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in the United Kingdom (2012-2017).
RESULTS: Mortality rates per 1,000 person-years were 32.9 for aclidinium, 43.8 for tiotropium, 38.0 for other LAMA, 47.1 for LABA/ICS, and 38.1 for LABA. The RR of death compared with current use of LABA was 0.54 (confidence interval [95% CI], 0.40-0.72) for aclidinium, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.76-1.21) for tiotropium, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.58-0.99) for other LAMA, and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.90-1.31) for LABA/ICS. Decreased risk for death observed among users of aclidinium was driven by overall current single use (RR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22-0.79), which corresponded to 26% of the aclidinium users (<15 cases) and not by multiple use (RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.71-1.48).
CONCLUSION: Use of aclidinium, tiotropium, other LAMA, or LABA/ICS was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality as compared with the use of LABAs.