Unintended pregnancy and women's psychological well-being in Indonesia
Hardee, K., Eggleston, E., Wong, E. L., Irwanto, X., & Hull, T. H. (2004). Unintended pregnancy and women's psychological well-being in Indonesia. Journal of Biosocial Science, 36(5), 617-626.
Few studies have examined the impact of unintended pregnancy on women in developing countries. This paper examines the impact of unintended pregnancy on Indonesian women's psychological well-being. It is hypothesized that experiencing unintended pregnancy is associated with lower psychological well-being and that use of family planning and small family size are associated with higher levels of psychological well-being. Data are drawn from a 1996 survey of 796 women aged 15-49 from two Indonesian provinces, Lampung and South Sumatra. This article focuses on the 71% of women (n=562) who answered all 41 survey items related to psychological well-being. In cluster analysis, women grouped into three clusters, differentiated by their scores on four scales of well-being established through factor analysis (general negative feelings, satisfaction with relationships, satisfaction with economic/family/personal conditions, and negative feelings regarding domestic issues). Women in cluster 3 were characterized mainly by their high level of psychological well-being. Women in cluster 1 had the lowest level of well-being, and women in cluster 2 were in the middle. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess jointly the effect of unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, number of children and other factors on a woman's level of psychological well-being. Unintended pregnancy was associated with lower levels of psychological well-being and contraceptive use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being, while number of children was not associated with level of well-being. Women who had experienced an unintended pregnancy were less likely to be in the high psychosocial wellbeing cluster versus both the medium and low clusters. In addition, women using contraception were more likely to be classified in the high than in the low or medium well-being clusters