This article briefly traces the history of the TRIO programs and provides evidence of their effectiveness in closing educational opportunity gaps in U.S. society. It also examines the criteria for participation in TRIO programs, focusing on the evolving definitions of educational disadvantagement relative to TRIO eligibility. In looking at TRIO's Upward Bound program specifically, the article presents a synopsis of over 30 years of research and program evaluations of this initiative, along with recommendations for improving Upward Bound's effectiveness
TRIO and Upward Bound: History, Programs, and Issues-Past, Present, and Future
The Full Circle: TRIO Programs, Higher Education, and the American Future
McElroy, EJ., & Armesto, M. (1998). TRIO and Upward Bound: History, Programs, and Issues-Past, Present, and Future: The Full Circle: TRIO Programs, Higher Education, and the American Future. Journal of Negro Education, 67(4), 373-380.