• Journal Article

Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium neavei in Mount Elgon Focus of Eastern Uganda Has Been Interrupted

Citation

Katabarwa, M., Lakwo, T., Habomugisha, P., Agunyo, S., Byamukama, E., Oguttu, D., ... Richards, F. O. (2014). Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium neavei in Mount Elgon Focus of Eastern Uganda Has Been Interrupted. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 90(6), 1159-1166. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0501

Abstract

The study determined that Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in Mount Elgon onchocerciasis focus had been interrupted. Annual mass treatment with ivermectin changed to two times per year along with vector elimination in 2007. Then, baseline microfilaria (mf) prevalence data of 1994 in five sentinel communities were compared with follow-up data in 2005 and 2011. Blood spots from 3,051 children obtained in 2009 were analyzed for exposure to Onchocerca volvulus immunoglobulin G4 antibodies. Fresh water crab host captures and blackflies collected indicated their infestation with larval stages of S. neavei and presence or absence of the vector, respectively. Mf rates dropped from 62.2% to 0.5%, and 1 (0.03%) of 3,051 children was positive for O. volvulus antibodies. Crab infestation dropped from 41.9% in 2007 to 0%, and S. neavei biting reduced to zero. Both remained zero for the next 3 years, confirming interruption of onchocerciasis transmission, and interventions were halted