• Journal Article

Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus Continues in Nyagak-Bondo Focus of Northwestern Uganda after 18 Years of a Single Dose of Annual Treatment with Ivermectin

Citation

Katabarwa, M. N., Lakwo, T., Habomugisha, P., Agunyo, S., Byamukama, E., Oguttu, D., ... Unnasch, T. R. (2013). Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus Continues in Nyagak-Bondo Focus of Northwestern Uganda after 18 Years of a Single Dose of Annual Treatment with Ivermectin. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 89(2), 293-300. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0037

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine whether annual ivermectin treatment in the Nyagak-Bondo onchocerciasis focus could safely be withdrawn. Baseline skin snip microfilariae (mf) and nodule prevalence data from six communities were compared with data collected in the 2011 follow-up in seven communities. Follow-up mf data in 607 adults and 145 children were compared with baseline (300 adults and 58 children). Flies collected in 2011were dissected, and poolscreen analysis was applied to ascertain transmission. Nodule prevalence in adults dropped from 81.7% to 11.0% (P < 0.0001), and mf prevalence dropped from 97.0% to 23.2% (P < 0.0001). In children, mf prevalence decreased from 79.3% to 14.1% (P < 0.0001). Parous and infection rates of 401 flies that were dissected were 52.9% and 1.5%, respectively, whereas the infective rate on flies examination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 1.92% and annual transmission potential was 26.9. Stopping ivermectin treatment may result in onchocerciasis recrudescence