Transfusion-Transmitted Dengue and Associated Clinical Symptoms During the 2012 Epidemic in Brazil
Sabino, E. C., Loureiro, P., Lopes, M. E., Capuani, L., McClure, C., Chowdhury, D., ... Custer, B. (2016). Transfusion-Transmitted Dengue and Associated Clinical Symptoms During the 2012 Epidemic in Brazil. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 213(5), 694-702. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiv326
BACKGROUND: A linked donor-recipient study was conducted during epidemics in 2 cities in Brazil to investigate transfusion-transmitted (TT) dengue virus (DENV) by DENV RNA-positive donations. METHODS: During February-June 2012, samples were collected from donors and recipients and retrospectively tested for DENV RNA by transcription-mediated amplification. Recipient chart review, using a case (DENV positive)-control (DENV negative and not known to be exposed) design, was conducted to assess symptoms. RESULTS: Of 39 134 recruited blood donors, DENV-4 viremia was confirmed in 0.51% of donations from subjects in Rio de Janeiro and 0.80% of subjects in Recife. Overall, 42 DENV RNA-positive units were transfused into 35 recipients. Of these, 16 RNA-positive units transfused into 16 susceptible recipients were identified as informative: 5 cases were considered probable TT cases, 1 possible TT case, and 10 nontransmissions. The TT rate was 37.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2%-64.6%), significantly higher than the viremia rate of 0.93% (95% CI, .11%-3.34%) in nonexposed recipients (P < .0001). Chart review did not find significant differences between cases and controls in symptoms or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: During a large epidemic of DENV-4 infection in Brazil, >0.5% of donations were RNA positive, and approximately one third of components resulted in TT. However, no significant clinical differences were evident between RNA-positive and RNA-negative recipients.