Three-Generation Evaluation of Dietary para-Nonylphenol in CD (Sprague-Dawley) Rats.
This study evaluated the potential for dietary para-nonylphenol (NP; CAS No. 84852-15-3) to affect parental fertility and growth and development of three offspring generations in CD (Sprague-Dawley [SD]) rats, including sperm counts across generations to determine the validity of equivocal reductions observed in the F2 generation by R. E. Chapin et al. (1999, Toxicol. Sci. 52, 80-91). Male rat kidney toxicity was also examined based on inconsistent observations in NP-exposed rats at 2000 ppm but not at 200 or 650 ppm in Purina 5002 (H. C. Cunny et al., 1997, Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 26, 172-178) and at all of these NP concentrations in NIH-07 diet (R. E. Chapin et al., 1999, Toxicol. Sci. 52, 80-91). Concentrations were 0, 20, 200, 650, and 2000 ppm NP in Purina 5002 diet and 0 and 650 ppm NP in NIH-07 diet. 17beta-estradiol (E2) was used as a positive control at 2.5 ppm in Purina 5002 diet. There were no NP effects on any reproductive parameters in any generation, including sperm counts. Kidney toxicity (histopathology) occurred at 650 and 2000 ppm with no clear difference for the two diets. Ovarian weight was decreased at 2000 ppm NP in all generations, with no effect on reproduction. Dietary E2 at 2.5 ppm caused renal, reproductive, and developmental (lactational and peripubertal) toxicity in all generations. This study confirmed that dietary NP is not a selective reproductive toxicant with an no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) of > 2000 ppm (approximately > 150 mg/kg/day) and provided an NOAEL for male rat kidney toxicity of 200 ppm NP (approximately 15 mg/kg/day).