Solvent comparison in the isolation, solubilization, and toxicity of Stachybotrys chartarum spore trichothecene mycotoxins in an established in vitro luminescence protein translation inhibition assay
Black, J., Foarde, K., & Menetrez, M. Y. (2006). Solvent comparison in the isolation, solubilization, and toxicity of Stachybotrys chartarum spore trichothecene mycotoxins in an established in vitro luminescence protein translation inhibition assay. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 66(2), 354-361.
It is well known that non-viable mold contaminants such as macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins of Stachybotrys chartarum are highly toxinigenic to humans. However, the method of recovering native mycotoxin has been without consensus. Inconsistencies occur in the methods of isolation, suspension, preparation, and quantitation of the mycotoxin from the spores. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitatively comparative data on three concurrent preparations of 10(6)S. chartarum spores. The experiments were designed to specifically evaluate a novel method of mycotoxin extraction, solubilization, and the subsequent inhibitory effect in an established in vitro luminescence protein translation assay from 30 day-old spores. The mycotoxin-containing spores swabbed from wallboard cultures were milled with and without glass beads in 100% methanol, 95% ethanol, or water. Milled spore lysates were cleared of cell debris by filter centrifugation followed by a second centrifugation through a 5000 MWCO filter to remove interfering proteins and RNases. Cleared lysate was concentrated by centrivap and suspended in either alcohol or water as described. The suspensions were used immediately in the in vitro luminescence protein translation assay with the trichothecene, T-2 toxin, as a control. Although, mycotoxin is reported to be alcohol soluble, the level of translation inhibition was not reliably satisfactory for either the methanol or ethanol preparations. In fact, the methanol and ethanol control reactions were not significantly different than the alcohol prepared spore samples. In addition, we observed that increasing amounts of either alcohol inhibited the reaction in a dose dependent manner. This suggests that although alcohol isolation of mycotoxin is desirable in terms of time and labor, the presence of alcohol in the luminescence protein translation reaction was not acceptable. Conversely, water extraction of mycotoxin demonstrated a dose dependent response, and there was significant difference between the water controls and the water extracted mycotoxin reactions. In our hands, water was the best extraction agent for mycotoxin when using this specific luminescence protein translation assay kit