Smoking in Pregnant Women Screened for an Opioid Agonist Medication Study Compared to Related Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Patient Samples
Jones, H., Heil, S. H., O'Grady, K. E., Martin, P. R., Kaltenbach, K., Coyle, M. G., ... Fischer, G. (2009). Smoking in Pregnant Women Screened for an Opioid Agonist Medication Study Compared to Related Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Patient Samples. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 35(5), 375-380.
Background: Little is known about the prevalence and severity of smoking in pregnant opioid dependent patients. Objectives: To first characterize the prevalence and severity of smoking in pregnant patients screened for a randomized controlled trial, Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER), comparing two agonist medications; and second, to compare the MOTHER screening sample to published samples of other pregnant and/or patients with substances use disorders. Methods: Pregnant women (N = 108) screened for entry into an agonist medication comparison study were retrospectively compared on smoking variables to samples of pregnant methadone-maintained patients (N = 50), pregnant opioid or cocaine dependent patients (N = 240), non-pregnant methadone-maintained women (N = 75), and pregnant non-drug-addicted patients (N = 1,516). Results: Of screened patients, 88% (n = 95) smoked for a mean of 140 months (SD = 79.0) starting at a mean age of 14 (SD = 3.5). This rate was similar to substance use disordered patients and significantly higher compared to general pregnant patients (88% vs. 22%, p < .001). Conclusion and Scientific Significance: Aggressive efforts are needed to reduce/eliminate smoking in substance-abusing pregnant women