Background: Little is known about the prevalence and severity of smoking in pregnant opioid dependent patients. Objectives: To first characterize the prevalence and severity of smoking in pregnant patients screened for a randomized controlled trial, Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER), comparing two agonist medications; and second, to compare the MOTHER screening sample to published samples of other pregnant and/or patients with substances use disorders. Methods: Pregnant women (N = 108) screened for entry into an agonist medication comparison study were retrospectively compared on smoking variables to samples of pregnant methadone-maintained patients (N = 50), pregnant opioid or cocaine dependent patients (N = 240), non-pregnant methadone-maintained women (N = 75), and pregnant non-drug-addicted patients (N = 1,516). Results: Of screened patients, 88% (n = 95) smoked for a mean of 140 months (SD = 79.0) starting at a mean age of 14 (SD = 3.5). This rate was similar to substance use disordered patients and significantly higher compared to general pregnant patients (88% vs. 22%, p < .001). Conclusion and Scientific Significance: Aggressive efforts are needed to reduce/eliminate smoking in substance-abusing pregnant women
Smoking in Pregnant Women Screened for an Opioid Agonist Medication Study Compared to Related Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Patient Samples
Jones, H., Heil, SH., O'Grady, KE., Martin, PR., Kaltenbach, K., Coyle, MG., Stine, SM., Selby, P., Arria, AM., & Fischer, G. (2009). Smoking in Pregnant Women Screened for an Opioid Agonist Medication Study Compared to Related Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Patient Samples. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 35(5), 375-380.