BACKGROUND: Sex influences health and related behaviors due to biological and psychosocial/socioeconomic factors. Assessing sex-specific responses to integrated treatment for comorbid obesity and depression could inform intervention targeting.
PURPOSE: To test (a) whether sex moderates the effects of integrated collaborative care on weight and depression outcomes through 24 months and (b) whether treatment response at 6 months predicts 12 and 24 month outcomes by sex.
METHODS: Secondary data analyses on weight and depression severity (SCL-20) measured over 24 months among 409 adults with obesity and depression in the Research Aimed at Improving Both Mood and Weight trial.
RESULTS: Men achieved significantly greater weight reductions in intervention versus usual care than women, whereas women achieved significantly greater percentage reductions in SCL-20 than men at both 12 and 24 months. In logistic models, at 80% specificity for correctly identifying participants not achieving clinically significant long-term outcomes, women who lost <3.0% weight and men who lost <4.1% weight at 6 months had ≥84% probability of not meeting 5% weight loss at 24 months. Similarly, at 80% specificity, women who reduced SCL-20 by <39.5% and men who reduced by <53.0% at 6 months had ≥82% probability of not meeting 50% decrease in SCL-20 at 24 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Sex modified the integrated treatment effects for obesity and depression. Sex-specific responses at 6 months predicted clinically significant weight loss and depression outcomes through 24 months. Based on early responses, interventions may need to be tailored to address sex-specific barriers and facilitators to achieving healthy weight and depression outcomes at later time points.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02246413 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02246413).